Physics Experiment

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Mechanics

Heat

Electrical machines

Electronic Light intensity Atomic and nuclear physis Solid-state physics

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Mechanics

Measuring lengths

  • using a caliper gauge with vernier
  • using a micrometer screw
  • using a spherometer to determine bending radii
  • Measuring volume and density
  • Determining the volume and density of solids
  • Determining the density of liquids using the pyknometer after Gay
  • Determining the density of air
  • Determining the gravitational constant
  • Determining the gravitational constant with the gravitation torsion balance after Cavendish - Measuring the excursion with a light pointer
  • Determining the gravitational constant with the gravitation torsion balance Cavendish - Recording the excursion and evaluating the measurement with the IR position detector and PC
  • Determining the gravitational constant with gravitation torsion balance after Cavendish - Recording the excursion with the IR position detector and recorder

Forces

Static effects of forces

  • Expansion of a helical spring
  • Bending of a leaf spring

Force as vector

  • Composition and resolution of forces
  • Composition and resolution of forces

Lever

  • One-sides and two-sided lever
  • Wheel and axle as a lever with unequal sides

Block and tackle

  • Fixed pulley, loose pulley and block and tackle as simple machines
  • Fixed pulley, loose pulley and block and tackle as simple machines on the adhesive magnetic board
  • Fixed pulley, loose pulley and block and tackle as simple machines on the adhesive magnetic board

Inclined plane

  • Inclined plane: force along the plane and force normal to the plane
  • Determining the coefficient of static friction using the inclined plane

Friction

  • Static friction, sliding friction and rolling friction

Translational motions of a mass point

One-dimensional motions on the track for students' experiments

  • Recording path-time diagrams of linear motion-recording with the time recorder
  • Recording path-time diagrams of linear motion-recording with a light barrier
  • Recording path-time diagrams of linear motion-recording with a motion transducer
  • One-dimensional motions on Fletcher's trolley
  • Path-time diagramm of straight motion - Recording the time with an electronic stopclock
  • Path-time diagramm of straight motion - Recording the time with an electronic stopclock
  • Path-time diagramm of straight motion - Recording and evaluating with CASSY
  • Definition of the newton as a unit of force - Recording and evaluating with CASSY
  • Definition of the newton as unit of force - Recording and evaluating with CASSY
  • Path-time diagramm of straight motion - Recording and evaluating with VideoCom

One-dimensional motions on the linear air track

  • Path-time diagramm of straight motion - Recording the time with forked light barrier
  • Path-time diagramm of straight motion - Recording and evaluating with CASSY
  • Uniformly accelerated motion with reversal of direction - Recording and evaluating CASSY
  • Kinetic energy of uniformly accelerated mass - Recording and evaluating with CASSY
  • Confirming Newton's first and second laws for linear motions - Recording and evaluating with VideoCom
  • Uniformly accelerated motion with reversal of direction - Recording and evaluating with VideoCom
  • Kinetic energy of a uniformly accelerated mass - Recording and evaluating with VideoCom

Conservation of linear momentum

  • Energy and momenturm in elastic collision - Measuring with two forked light barriers
  • Energy and momenturm in inelastic collision - Measuring with two forked light barriers
  • Energy and momenturm in inelastic collision - Measuring with two forked light barriers
  • Rocket principle: conservation of momentum and reaction
  • Newton's third law and laws of collision - Recording and evaluating with VideoCom
  • Newton's third law and laws of collision - Recording and evaluating with VideoCom

Free fall

  • Free fall: time measurement with the contact plate and the counter S
  • free fall: time measurement with the forked light barrier and the digital counter
  • Free fall: multiple measurements with the g-ladder
  • Free fall: Recording and evaluating with VideoCom

Angled projection

  • Point-by-point recording of the projection parabola as a function of the speed and angle of projection
  • Principle of superposing: comparison of incllined projection and free fall

Two-dimensional motions on the air table

  • Uniform linear motion and uniform circular motion
  • Uniformly accelerated motion
  • Two-dimensional motion on an inclined plane
  • Two-dimensional motion in responce to a central force
  • Superposing translational and rotational motion on a rigid body
  • Two-dimensional motion of two elastically coupled bodies
  • Experimentally verifying the equality of aforce and its opposing force
  • Elastic collision in two dimensions
  • Inelastic collision in two dimensions

Rotational motions of a rigid body

Rotational motions

  • Path-time diagrams of rotational motions - Time measurement with the counter
  • Path-time diagrams of rotational motions - Recording and evaluating with CASSY

Conservation of angular momentum

  • Conservation of angular momentum in elastic rotational collision
  • Conservation of angular momentum in inelastic rotational collision

Centrifugal force

  • Centrifugal force of an orbiting body - Measuring with the centrifugal force apparatus
  • Centrifugal force of an orbiting body - Measuring with the central force apparatus
  • Centrifugal force of an orbiting body - Measuring with the central force apparatus and CASSY

Motions of a gyroscope

  • Precession of a gyoscope
  • Nutation of a gyoscope

Moment of inertia

  • Definition of moment of inertia
  • Moment of intertia and body shape
  • Confirming Steiner's theorem

Oscillations

Simple and compound pendulum

  • Determining the gravitation with a simple pendulum
  • Determining the gravitational acceleration with a reversible pendulum

Harmonic oscillations

  • Oscillations of a spring pendulum - Recording the path, velocity and acceleration with CASSY
  • Determining the oscillation period of a spring pendulum as a function of the oscillating mass

Torsion pendulum

  • Free rotational oscillations - Measuring with a hand-held stopclock
  • Forced rotational oscillations - Measuring with a hand-held stopclock
  • Free rotational oscillations - Recording with CASSY
  • Forced harmonic and chaotic rotational oscillations - Recording with CASSY

Coupling if oscillations

  • Coupled pendulum - Measuring with a hand-held stopclock
  • Coupled pendulum - Recording and evaluating with VideoCom
  • Coupling of longitudinal and rotational oscillations with the helical spring after Wilberforce
  • Coupled pendulum - Recording and evaluating with CASSY

Wave mechanics

Transversal and longitudinal waves

  • Standing transversal waves on a thread
  • Standing longitudinal waves on a helical spring

Wave machine

  • Wavelength, frequency and phase velocity of traveling waves

Circularly polarized waves

  • Investigating circularly polarized waves in the experiment setup after Melde
  • Determining the phase velocity of circularly polarized thread waves in the experiment setup after Melde

Propagation of water waves

  • Exciting circular and straight water waves
  • Huygens' principle in water waves
  • Propagation of water waves in two different depths
  • Refraction of water waves
  • Doppler effect in water waves
  • Reflection of water waves at a straight obstacle
  • Reflection of water waves at curved obstacles

Interference of water waves

  • Two-beam interference of water waves
  • Lloyd's experiment on water waves
  • Diffraction of water waves at slit and at an obstacle
  • Diffraction of water waves at a multiple slit

Acoustics

Sound waves

  • Mechanical oscillations and sound waves using the recording tuning fork
  • Acoustic beats - Displaying on the oscilloscope
  • Acoustic beats - Recording with CASSY

Oscillations of a string

  • Determining the oscillation frequency of a string as a function of the string length and tension

Wavelength and velocity of sound

  • Kundt's tube: determining the wavelength of sound with the cork-powder method
  • Determining the wavelength of standing sound waves
  • Determining the velocity of sound in air as a function of the temperature
  • Determining the velocity of sound in gases
  • Determining the velocity of sound in solids

Reflection of ultrasonic waves

  • Reflection of planar ultrasonic waves at a plane surface
  • Principle of an echo sounder

Interference of ultrasonic waves

  • Beating of ultrasonic waves
  • Interference of two ultrasonic beams
  • Diffraction of ultrasonic waves at a single slit
  • Diffraction of ultrasonic waves at a double slit, a multiple slit and a grating

Acoustic Doppler effect

  • Investigating the Doppler effect with ultrasonic waves

Fourier analysis

  • Investigating fast Fourier transforms: simulation of Fourier analysis and Fourier synthesis
  • Fourier analysis of the periodic signals of a function generator
  • Fourier analysis of an electric oscillator circuit
  • Fourier analysis of sounds

Aerodynamics and hydrodynaics

Barometric measurements

  • Definition of pressure
  • Hydrostatic pressure as a non-directional quantity

Buoyancy

  • Confirming Archimedes' principle
  • Measuring the buoyancy as a function of the immersion depth

Viscosity

  • Assembling a falling-ball viscosimeter to determine the viscosity of viscous fluids
  • Falling-ball viscosimeter: measuring the viscosity of sugar solutions as a function of the concentration
  • Falling-ball viscosimeter: measuring the viscosity of Newtonian liquids as a function of the temperature

Surface tension

  • Measuring the surface tension using the "break-away" method
  • Measuring the surface tension using the "break-away" method - Recording and evaluating with CASSY

Introductory experiments on aerodynamics

  • Static pressure in a reduced cross-section - Measuring the pressure with the precision manometer
  • Determining the volume flow with a Venturi tube - Measuring the pressure with the precision manometer
  • Determining the wind speed with a pressure head - Measuring the pressure with the precision manometer
  • Static pressure in a reduced cross-section - Measuring the pressure with a pressure sensor and Mobile-CASSY
  • Determining the volume flow with a Venturi tube - Measuring the pressure with a pressure sensor and Mobile-CASSY
  • Determining the wind speed with a pressure head - Measuring the pressure with a pressure sensor and Mobile-CASSY

Measuring air resistance

  • Measuring the air resistance as a function of the wind speed - Measuring the pressure with the precision manometer
  • Drag coefficient cW: relationship between air resistance and body shape - Measuring the pressure with the precision manometer
  • Pressure curve on an airfoil profile - Measuring the pressure with the precision manometer
  • Measuring the air resistance as a function of the wind speed - Measuring the pressure with a pressure sensor and Mobile-CASSY
  • Drag coefficient cW: relationship between air resistance and body shape - Measuring the pressure with a pressure sensor and Mobile-CASSY
  • Pressure curve on an airfoil profile - Measuring the pressure with a pressure sensor and Mobile-CASSY

Measurements in a wind tunnel

  • Recording the airfoil profile polars in a wind tunnel
  • Measuring students' ownn airfoils and panels in the wind tunnel
  • Verifying the Bernoulli equation - Measuring with the precision manometer
  • Verifying the Bernoulli equation - Measuring with a pressure sensor and Mobile-CASSY

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Heat

Thermal expansions of solids

  • Thermal expansions of solids - Measuring using STM equipment
  • Thermal expansion of solids - Measuring using the expansion apparatus
  • Measuring the linear expansion of solids as a function of temperature

Thermal expansions of liquids

  • Determining the volumetric expansion coefficient of liquids

Anomaly of water

  • Investigating the density maximum of water

Thermal conduction

Thermal couductivity

  • Determining the thermal conductivity of building materials using the single-plate method
  • Determining the thermal conductivity of building materials with the aid of a reference material of known thermal conductivity
  • Damping temperature fluctuations using multiple-layered walls

Solar collector

  • Determining the efficiency of a solar collector as a function of the throughput volume of water
  • Determining the efficiency of a solar collector as a function of the heat insulation

Heat as a form of energy

Mixing temperatures

  • Mixing temperature of water

Heat capacities

  • Determining the specific heat of solids

Converting mechanical energy into heat

  • Converting mechanical energy into heat energy - Recording and evaluating measured values manually
  • Converting mechanical energy into heat energy - Recording and evaluating with CASSY

Converting electrical energy into heat

  • Converting electrical energy into heat energy - Measuring with a voltmeter and an ammeter
  • Converting electrical energy into heat energy - Measuring with the joule and wattmeter
  • Converting electrical energy into heat energy - Measuring with CASSY

Phase transistions

Latent heat and vaporization heat

  • Determining the specific vaporization heat of water
  • Determining the specific latent heat of ice

Measuring vapor pressure

  • Recording the vapor-pressure curve of water - Pressure up to 1 bar
  • Recording the vapor-pressure curve of water - Pressure up to 50 bar

Critical temperature

  • Observing the phase transition between the liquid and the gas phase at the critical point

Kinetic theory of gases

Brownian motion of molecules

  • Brownian movement of smoke particles

Gas laws

  • Pressure-dependency of the volume of a gas at a constant temperature (Boyle-Mariotte's law)
  • Temperature-dependency of the volume of a gas at a constant pressure (Gay-Lussac's law)
  • Temperature-dependency of the pressure of a gas at a constant volume (Amontons' law)

Specific heat of gases

  • Determining the adiabatic exponent Cp/CV of air after Ruchard
  • Determining the adiabatic exponent Cp/CV of various gases using the gas elastic resonance apparatus

Thermodynamic cycle

Hot-air engine: qualitative experiments

  • Operating a hot-air engine as a thermal engine
  • Operating the hot-air engine as a heat pump and a refrigerator

Hot-air engine: quantitative experiments

  • Frictional losses in the hot-air engine (calorific determination)
  • Determining the efficiency of the hot-air engine as a heat engine
  • Determining the efficiency of the hot-air engine as a refrigerator
  • pV diagram of the hot-air engine as a heat engine - Recording and evaluating with CASSY

Heat pump

  • Determining the efficiency of the heat pump as a function of the temperature differential
  • Investigating the function of the expansion valve of the heat pump
  • Analyzing the cyclical process of the heat pump with the Mollier diagram

Electricity

Basic experiments on electrostatics

  • Basic electrostatics experiments with the field electrometer
  • Basic electrostatics experiments with the electrometer amplifier

Coulomb's law

  • Confirming Coulomb's law - Measuring with the torsion balance, Schurholz design
  • Confirming Coulomb's law - Measuring with the force sensor
  • Confirming Coulomb's law - Recording and evaluating with CASSY

Field lines and equipotential lines

  • Displaying lines of electric flux
  • Displaying the equipotential lines of electric fields

Effects of force in an electric field

  • Measuring the force of an electric charge in a homogeneous electric field
  • Kirchhoff's voltage balance: Measuring the force between two charged plates of a plate capacitor
  • Measuring the force between a charged sphere and a metal plate

Charge distributions on electrical conductors

  • Investigating the charge distribution on the surface of electrical conductors
  • Electrostatic induction with the hemispheres after Cavendish

Definition of capacitance

  • Determining the capacitance of a sphere in free space
  • Determining the capacitance of a sphere in front of a metal plate

Plate capacitor

  • Determining the capacitance of a plate capacitor - Measuring the charge with the electrometer amplifier
  • Parallel and series connection of capacitors - Measuring the charge with the electrometer amplifier
  • Determining the capacitance of a plate capacitor - Measuring the charge with the I-measuring amplifier D

Principles of electricity

Charge transfer with drops of water

  • Generating an electric current through the motion of charged drops of water

ohm's law

  • Verifying Ohm's law and measuring specific resistances

Kirchhoff's laws

  • Measuring current and voltage at resistors connected in parallel and in series
  • Voltage division with a potentiometer
  • Principle of a Wheatstone bridge
  • Determining resistances using a Wheatstone bridge

Circuits with electrical measuring instruments

  • The ammeter as an ohmic resistor in a circuit
  • The voltmeter as an ohmic resistor in a circuit

Conducting electricity by means of electrolysis

  • Determining the Faraday constant

Experiments on electrochemistry

  • Generating electric current with a Daniell cell
  • Measuring the voltage at simple galavanic elements
  • Determining the standard potentials of corresponding redox pairs

Magnetostatics

Basic experiments on magnetostatics

  • Displaying lines of magnetic flux
  • Basic of electromagnetism

Magnetic dipole moment

  • Measuring the magnetic dipole moments of long magnetic needles

Effects of force in a magnetic field

  • Measuring the force acting on current-carrying conductors in the field of a horseshoe magnet
  • Measuring the force acting on current-carrying conductors in a homogeneous magnetic field - Recording with CASSY
  • Measuring the force acting on current-carrying conductors in the magnetic field of an air coil -Recording with CASSY
  • Basic measurements for the electrodynamic definition of the ampere

Biot-Savart's law

  • Measuring the magnetic field for a straight conductor and on circular conductor loops
  • Measuring the magnetic field of an air coil
  • Measuring the magnetic field of a pair of coils in the Helmgoltz configuration

Electromagnetic induction

Voltage impulse

  • Generating a voltage surge in a conductor loop with a moving permanent magnet

Induction in a moving conductor loop

  • Measuring the induction voltage in a conductor loop moved through a magnetic field

Induction by means of a variable magnetic field

  • Measuring the induction voltage in a conductor loop for a variable magnetic field - with triangular wave-form power supply
  • Measuring the induction voltage in a conductor loop for a variable magnetic field - with Power-CASSY as variable source of current

Eddy currents

  • Waltenhofen's pendulum: demonstration of an eddy-current brake
  • Demonstrating the operating principle of an AC power meter

Transformer

  • Voltage and current transformation with a transformer
  • Voltage transformation with a transformer under load
  • Recording the voltage and current of a transformer under load as a function of time
  • Power transmission of a transformer
  • Experiments with high currents
  • High-voltage experiments with a two-pronged lighting rod

Measuring the earth's magnetic field

  • Measuring the earth's magnetic field with a rotating induction coil (earth inductor)

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Electrical machines

Basic experiments on electrical machines

  • Investigating the interactions of forces of rotors and stators
  • Simple induction experiments with electromagnetic rotors and stators

Electric generators

  • Generating AC voltage using a revolving-field generator and a stationary-field generator
  • Generating DC voltage using a stationary-field generator
  • Generating AC voltage using a generator with electromagnetic rotating pole (power-plant generator)
  • Generating voltage with an AC-DC generator (generator with electromagnetic stationary pole)
  • Generating voltage using self-exciting generators

Electric motors

  • Experiments on DC motor with two-pole rotor
  • Experiments on DC motor with three-pole rotor
  • Experiments with a universal motor in series and shunt connection
  • Assembling an AC synchronous motor

Three-phase machines

  • Experiments with a three-phase revolving-armature generator
  • Experiments with a three-phase revolving-field generator
  • Comparing star and delta connections on a three-phase generator
  • Assembling synchronous and asynchronous three-phase motors

DC and AC circuits

Circuit with capacitor

  • Charging and discharging a capacitor when switching DC on and off
  • Determining the capacitive reactance of a capacitor in an AC circuit

Circuit with coil

  • Measuring the current in a coil when switching DC on and off
  • Determining the inductive reactance of a coil in an AC circuit

Impedances

  • Determining the impedance in circuits with capacitors and ohmic resistors
  • Determining the impedance in circuits with coils and ohmic resistors
  • Determining the impedance in circuits with capacitors and coils

Measuring-bridge circuits

  • Determining capacitive reactance with a Wien measuring bridge
  • Determining inductive reactance with a Maxwell measuring bridge

Measuring AC voltages and AC currents

  • Frequency response and form factor of a multimeter

Electrical work and power

  • Determining the heating power if an ohmic load in an AC circuit as a function of the applied voltage
  • Determining the electric work of an immersion heater using an AC power meter
  • Quantitative comparison of DC power and AV power in an incandescent lamp
  • Determining the crest  factors of various AC signal forms
  • Determining the active and reactive power in AC circuits

Electromechanical devices

  • Demonstrating the function of a bell
  • Demonstrating the function of a relay

Electromagnetic oscillations and waves

Electromagnetic oscillator circuit

  • Free electromagnetic oscillations
  • De-damping of electromagnetic oscillations through inductive three-point coupling after Hartley

Decimeter-range waves

  • Radiation characteristic and polarization of decimeter waves
  • Amplitude modulation of decimeter waves
  • Estimating the dielectric constant of water in the decimeter-wave range

Propagation of decimeter-range waves along lines

  • Determining the current and voltage maxima on a Lecher line
  • Investigating the current and voltage on  a Lecher line with a loop dipole

Microwaves

  • Directional characteristic and polarization of microwaves in front of a horn antenna
  • Absorption of microwaves
  • Interference of microwaves
  • Diffraction of microwaves
  • Refraction of microwaves
  • Total reflection of microwaves

Propagation of microwaves along lines

  • Guiding of microwaves along a Lecher line
  • Qualitative demonstration of guising of microwaves along a metal waveguide
  • Determining the standing-wave ratio of a rectangular wave-guide for a variablel reflectionn factor

Directional characteristic of dipole radiation

  • Directional characteristic of a helix antenna - Recording measured values manually
  • Directional characteristic of a Yagi antenna - Recording measured values  manually
  • Directional characteristic of a helix antenna - Recording with a computer
  • Directional characteristic of a Yagi antenna - Recording with a computer

Moving charge carries in a vacuum

Tube diode

  • Recording the characteristic of a tube diode
  • Half-wave rectification using a tube diode

Tube triode

  • Recording the characteristic field of a tube triode
  • Amplifying voltages with a tube triode

Maltese-cross tube

  • Demonstrating the linear  propagation of electrons in a field-free space
  • Deflection of electrons in an axial magnetic field

Perrin tube

  • Hot-cathode emission in a vacuum: determining the polarity and estimating the specific charge of the  emitted charge carriers
  • Generating Lissajou figures through electron deflection in crossed alternating magnetic fields

Thomson tube

  • Investigating the deflection of electrons in electrical and magnetic fields
  • Assembling a velocity filter (Wien filter) to determine the specific

Electrical conduction in gases

Spontaneous and non-spontaneous discharge

  • Non-spontaneous gas discharge: comparison between the charge transport in a gas triode and a high-vacuum triode
  • Ignition and extinction of spontaneous gas discharge

Gas discharge at reduced pressure

  • Investigating spontaneous gas discharge in air as a function of pressure

Cathode rays and canal reys

  • Magnetic deflection of cathode and canal rays

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Electronic

Current and voltage sources

  • Determining the internal resistance of a battery
  • Operating a DC power supply as constant-current and constant-voltage source
  • Recording the current-voltage characteristics  of a solar battery as a function of the irradiance

Special resisistors

  • Recording the current-voltage characteristic of an incandescent lamp
  • Recording the current-voltage characteristic of a  varistor
  • Measuring the temperature-dependancy of PTC and NTC resistors
  • Measuring the light-dependancy of photoresistors

Diodes

  • Recording the current-voltage characteristic of diodes
  • Recording the current -voltage characteristics of Zener diodes (Z-diodes)
  • Recording the current-voltage characteristics  of light-emitting diodes (LED)

Diode circuits

  • Rectifying AC voltage using diodes
  • Voltage-limiting with a Z-diodes
  • Testing polarity with light-emitting diodes

Transistors

  • Investigating the diode properties of transistor junctions
  • Recording the characteristics of a transistors
  • Recording the characteristics of a field-effect transistor

Transistor circuits

  • The transistor as an amplifier
  • The transistor as a switch
  • The transistor as a sine-wave generator (oscillator)
  • The transistor as a function generator
  • The field-effect transistor as an amplifier
  • The field-effect transistor as a switch

Optoelectronics

  • Recording the characteristics of a phototransistor connected as photodiode
  • Assembling a purely optical transmission line

Operational amplifier

Internal design of an operational amplifier

  • Discrete assembly of an operational amplifier as a transistor circuit

Operational amplifier circuits

  • Unconnected operational amplifier (comparator)
  • Inverting operational amplifier
  • Non-inverting operational amplifier
  • Adder and subtracter
  • Differentiator and integrator

Open-and closed-loop control

Open-loop control

  • Assembling a traffic-light control system
  • Assembling a model for control of stairway illumination

Closed-loop control

  • Assembling a model for servo control
  • Brightness control with CASSY
  • Voltage control with CASSY

Digital technology

Basic logical operations

  • AND, OR, XOR, NAND and NOR operations with two variables
  • De Morgan's laws
  • Operations with three variables

Combinatorial and sequential circuits

  • AND, NAND, OR and NOR operations with four variables
  • Coders, decoders and code converters
  • Multiplexers and demultiplexers
  • Adders
  • Flip flops
  • Counters
  • Shift registers

Serial and parallel arithmetic units

  • Data transfer between registers
  • Serial and parallel logic elements
  • Serial  and parallel adders and subtracters
  • Functions of the buffer, latch and accumulator

Digital control systems

  • Structure of functional circuits
  • DA and AD Converter

Structure of a central processing unit (CPU)

  • Function of the ALU, CPU timer, RAM and I/O components
  • Address bus and data bus
  • Indirect, direct and immediate addressing
  • Conditional and unconditional jump instructions
  • Program memory
  • Examples of programs

Microprocessor

  • Signal transmission via the address, data and control buses
  • Program counter and address structure, zero page
  • Data-transfer instructions
  • Rotation and shift instructions
  • Arithmetic and logic operations
  • Program control using jumps, branches, subprogram calls and interrupt processing

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Geometrical optics

Reflection, refraction

  • Reflection of light at straight and curved mirrors
  • Refraction of light at straight surfaces and investigation of ray paths in prisms and lenses

Laws of imaging

  • Determining the focal lengths at collecting and dispersing lenses using collimated light
  • Determining the focal lengths at collecting lenses at collecting lenses through autocollimmation
  • Determining thee focal lengths at collecting lenses using Basel's method
  • Verifying the imaging laws with a collecting lens

Image distortion

  • Spherical aberration and coma in lens imaging
  • Astigmatism and curvature of image field in lens imaging
  • Lens imaging distortions (barrel and cushion)
  • Chromatic aberration in lens imaging

Optical instruments

  • Magnifier and microscope
  • Kepler's telescope and Galileo's telescope

Dispersion and chromatics

Refractive index and dispersion

  • Determining the refractive index and dispersion of flint glass and crown glass
  • Determining the refractive index and dispersion of liquids

Decomposition of white light

  • Newton's experiments on dispersion and recombination of white light
  • Adding complementary colors to create white light

Color mixing

  • Additive and subtractive color  mixing

Absorption spectra

  • Absorption spectra of tinted glass samples
  • Absorption spectra of colored liquids

Wave optics

Diffraction

  • Diffraction at a slit, at a post and at a circular iris diaphragm
  • Diffraction at a double slit and multiple slits
  • Diffraction at one-and two-dimensional gratings
  • Diffraction at a signal slit - Recording and evaluating with CASSY
  • Diffraction at a double slit and multiple slits - Recording and evaluating with CASSY
  • Diffraction at a single slit - Recording and evaluating with VideoCom
  • Diffraction at a double slit and multiple slits - Recording and evaluating with VideoCom
  • Diffraction at a half-plane - Recording and evaluating with VideoCom

Two-beam interference

  • Interference at a Fresnel's mirror with  an He-Ne laser
  • Lloyd's mirror experiment with an Hee-Ne laser
  • Interference at Fresnel's biprism with an He-ne laser

Newton's Rings

  • Newton's Rings in transmitted monochromatic light
  • Newton's rings in transmitted and reflected white light

Michelson interferometer

  • Setting up a Michelson interferometer on the laser optics base plate
  • Determining the wavelength of the light of an He-N laser using a Michelson

Mach-Zehnder interferometer

  • Setting up a Mach-Zehnder interferometer on the laser optics base plate
  • Measuring the refractive index of air with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer

White-light Reflection Holography

  • Creating white-light reflection holograms on the laser optics base plate

Transmission Holography

  • Creating transmission holograms on the laser optics base plate

Polarization

Basic experients

  • Polarization of light through reflection at a glass plate
  • Fresnel's laws of reflection
  • Polarization of light through scattering in an emulsion
  • Malus' law

Birefringence

  • Birefringence and polarization with calcareous spar
  • Quarter-wavelength and half-wavelength plate
  • Photoelasticity: Investigating the distribution of strains in mechanically stressed bodies

Optical activity, polarimetry

  • Rotation of the plane of polarization with quartz
  • Rotation of the plane of polarization with sugar solutions
  • Building a half-shadow polarimeter with discrete elements
  • Determining the concentration of sugar solutions with a standard commerical

Kerr effect

  • Investigating the Kerr effect in nitrobenzol

Pockels effect

  • Demonstrating the Pockels effect in a conoscopic beam path
  • Pockels effect: transmitting information using modulated light

Faraday effect

  • Faraday effect: determining Verdet's constant for flint glass as a function of the wavelength

Light intensity

Quantities and measuring methods of lighting engineering

  • Determining the radiant flux density and the luminous intensity of a halogen lamp
  • Determining the luminous intensity as a function of the distance from the light source - Recording and evaluating with CASSY
  • Verifying Lambert's law of radiation

Laws of radiation

  • Stefan-Boltzmann law: measuring the radiant intensity of a "black body" as a function
  • Stefan-Botzmann law: measuring the radiant intensity of a "black body" as a function of temperature - Recording and evaluating with CASSY
  • Confirming the laws of radiation with Leslie's tube

Velocity of light

Measurement according to Foucault/Michelson

  • Determining the velocity of light by means of the rotating-mirror method according to Foucault and Michelson - Measuring the image shift as a function of the rotational speed of the mirror
  • Determining the velocity of light by means of the rotating-mirror method according to Foucault and Michelson - Measuring the image shift for the maximum rotational speed of the mirror

Measuring with short light pulses

  • Determining the velocity of light in air from the path and transit time of a short light
  • Determining the propagation velocity of voltage pulses in coaxial cables

Measuring with an electronically modulated signal

  • Determining the velocity of light with an electronically modulated signal at small distances
  • Determining the velocity of light in various materials

Spectrometer

Prism spectrometer

  • Measuring the line spectra of inert gases and metal vapors using a prism spectrometer

Grating spectrometer

  • Measuring the line spectra of inert gases and metal vapors using a grating spectrometer
  • Assembling a grating spectrometer for measuring transmission curves

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Atomic and nuclear physis

Oil-spot experiment

  • Estimating the size of oil molecules

Millikan experiment

  • Determining the electric unit charge after Millikan and verifying the charge quantification - Measuring the suspension voltage and the falling speed
  • Determining the electric unit charge after Millikan and verifying the charge quantification - Measuring the rising and falling speed
  • Determining the electric unit charge after Millikan and verifying the charge quantification - Measuring the suspension voltage and the falling speed with CASSY
  • Determining the electric unit charge after Millikan and verifying the charge quantification - Measuring the rising and falling speed CASSY

Specific electron charge

  • Determining the specific charge of the electron

Planck's constant

  • Determining Planck's constant - Measuring in a compact assembly
  • Determining Planck's constant - Separation of wavelengths with a straight-view prism on the optical bench
  • Determining Planck's constant -- Selection of wavelengths using interference filters onn the optical bench

Dual nature of wave and particle

  • Deflection of electrons at a polycrystalline lattice (Debye-Scherrer diffraction)
  • Optical analogy to electron diffraction at a polycrystalline lattice

Paul trap

  • Observing individual lycopod spores in a Paul trap

Atomic shell

Balmer series of hydrogen

  • Determining the wavelengths Ha, H? and  hg from the Balmer series of hydrogen
  • Observing the Balmer series of hydrogen using a prism spectrometer

Emission and absorption spectra

  • Displaying the spectral lines of inert gases and metal vapors
  • Qualitative investitation of the absorption spectrum of sodium

Inelastic collisions of electrons

  • Discontinuous energy emission of electrons  in a gas-filled triode

Franck-Hertz experiment

  • Franck-Hertz experiment with mercury - Recording with oscilloscope, the XY-recorder and point by point
  • Franck-Hertz  experiment with mercury - Recording and evaluation with CASSY
  • Franck-Hertz experiment with neon - Recording with the oscilloscope, the XY-recorder and point by point
  • Franck-Hertz experiment with neon - Recording and evaluation with CASSY

Electron spin resonance

  • Electron spin resonance at DPPH - determining the magnetic field fas a function the resonance frequency
  • Resonance absorption of a passive RF oscillator circuit

Normal Zeeman effect

  • Observing the normal Zeeman effect in transverse and longitudinal configuration - spectroscopy using a Lummer-Gehrcke plate
  • Measuring the Zeeman split of the red casmium line as a function of the magnetic field - spectroscopy using a Lummer-Gehrcke plate
  • Observing the normal Zeeman effect in transverse and longitudinal configuration - spectroscopy using a Febry-Perot etalon
  • Measuring the Zeeman split of the red cadmium line as a function of thee mafnetic field - spectroscopy using a Fabry-Perot etalon
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Optical pumping (anomalous Zeeman effect)

  • Optical pumping: observing the pump signal
  • Optical pumping: measuring and observing the Zeeman transitions in the ground states of Rb-87 with s+- and s--pumped light
  • Optical pumping: measuring and observing the Zeeman transitions in the states of Rb-85 with s+-and s--pumped light
  • Optical pumping: measuring and observing the Zeeman transitions in the ground states of Rb-87 as a function of the magnetic flux density B
  • Optical pumping: measuring and observing the Zeeman transitions in thee ground states of Rb-85 as a function of the magnetic flux density B
  • Optical pumping: measuring and observing two-quantum transitions

X-rays

Detection of x-rays

  • Fluorescence of a luminescent screen due to x-rays
  • X-ray photography: Exposure of film sock due to x-rays
  • Detecting x-rays using an ionization chambr
  • Determining the ion dose rate of the x-ray tube with molydenum anode

Attenuation of x-rays

  • Investigating the attenuation of x-rays as a function of the absorber material and absorber thickness
  • Investigating the wavelength dependency of the attenuation coefficient
  • Investigating the relationship between the attenuation coefficient and the atomic number Z

Physics of the atomic shell

  • Bragg reflection: diffraction of x-rays at a monocrystal
  • Investigating the energy spectrum of an x-ray tube as a function of the high voltage and the emission current
  • Duane-Hunt relation and determination of Planck's constant
  • Fine structure of the characteristic x-ray radiation of a molybdenum anode
  • Edge absorption: filtering x-rays
  • Moseley's law and determination of the Rydberg constant
  • Compton effect: verifying the energy loss of the scattered x-ray quantum
  • Fine structure of the characteristic x-ray radiation of a copper anode

Radioactivity

Detecting radioactivity

  • Ionization of air through radioactivity
  • Recording the current-voltage characteristic of an ionization chamber
  • Demonstrating radioactive radiation with a Geiger counter
  • Recording the characteristic of a Geiger-Muller (end-window) counter tube

Poisson distribution

  • Statistical variations in determining counting rates

Radioactive decay and half-life

  • Determining the half-life of Cs-137 - Point-by-point recording of a decay curve
  • Determining the half-life of Cs-137 - Recording and evaluating the decay curve with CASSY

Attenuation of alpha, beta and gamma radiation

  • Measuring the range of a radiation in air
  • Attenuation of b radiation when passing through matter
  • Confirming the inverse-square law of distance for b radiation
  • Absorption of g radiation through matter

Nuclear physics

Demonstrating paths of particles

  • Demonstrating the tracks of particles in a Wilson cloud chamber

Rutherford scattering

  • Rutherford scattering: measuring the scattering rate as a function of the scattering angle and the atomic number

Nuclear magnetic resonance

  • Nuclear magnetic resonance in polystyrene, glycerin and Teflon

alpha-spectroscopy

  • alpha spectroscopy of radioactive samples
  • Determining the energy loss of alpha radiation in air
  • Determining the energy loss of alpha radiation in aluminum and in gold
  • Determining age using a Ra-226 sample

gamma-spectroscopy

  • Determining gamma radiation with a scintillation counter
  • Recording and calibrating a gamma spectrum
  • Absorption of gamma radiation
  • Identifying and determining the activity of radioactive samples
  • Recording a beta spectrum with a scintillation counter
  • Coincidence and g-g angular correlation in positron decay

Compton effect

  • Quantitative observation of the Compton effect

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Solid-state physics

Crystal structure

  • Structure of a body-centered cubic and face-centered cubic lattice

X-ray structural analysis

  • Bragg reflection: determining the lattice constants of monocrystals
  • laue diagrams: investigating the lattice structure of monocrystals
  • Debye-Scherrer photograghy: determining the lattice plane spacings of Polycrystalline
  • Debye-Scherrer Scan: determining the lattice plane spacings of polycrystalline powder

Elastic and plastic deformation

  • Investigating the elastic and plastic extension of metal wires

Conduction phenomena

Hall effect

  • Investigating the Hall effect in silver
  • Investigating the anomalous Hall effect in tungsten
  • Determining the density and mobility of charge carriers in n-Germanium
  • Determining the density and mobility of charge carriers in p-Germanium
  • Determining the band gap of germanium

Electrical conductivity in solids

  • Measuring the temperature-dependency of a noble-metal resistor
  • Measuring the temperature-dependency of a semiconductor resistor

Photoconductivity

  • Recording the current-voltage characteristics of a Cds photoresistor

Luminescence

  • Exciting luminescence through irraditaion with ultraviolet light and electrons

Thermoelectricity

  • Seebeck effect: Determining the thermoelectric voltage as a function of the temperature differential

Superconductivity

  • Determining the transition temperature of a high-temperature superconductor
  • Meissner-Ochsenfeeld effect for a high-temperature superconductor

Magnetism

Dia-, para- and ferromagnetism

  • Dia-, para- and ferromagnetic materials in an inhomogeneous magnetic field

Ferromagnetic hysteresis

  • Recording the initial magnetization curve and the hysteresis curve of a ferromagnetic

Scanning probe microscopy

Scanning tunneling microscope

  • Investigating a graphite surface using a scanning tunneling microscope
  • Investigating a gold surface using a scanning tunneling microscope
  • Investigating a MoS2 probe using a scanning tunneling microscope

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