Mechanics
Measuring
lengths
 using a caliper gauge with vernier
 using a micrometer
screw
 using a spherometer to determine bending radii
 Measuring volume and density
 Determining the volume and density of solids
 Determining the density of liquids using the pyknometer
after Gay
 Determining the
density of air
 Determining the gravitational constant
 Determining the gravitational constant with the
gravitation torsion balance after Cavendish  Measuring the excursion
with a light pointer
 Determining the gravitational constant with the
gravitation torsion balance Cavendish  Recording the excursion and
evaluating the measurement with the IR position detector and PC
 Determining the gravitational constant with gravitation
torsion balance after Cavendish  Recording the excursion with the IR
position detector and recorder
Forces
Static effects of forces
 Expansion of a
helical spring
 Bending of a leaf
spring
Force as vector
 Composition and
resolution of forces
 Composition and
resolution of forces
Lever
 Onesides and
twosided lever
 Wheel and axle as a
lever with unequal sides
Block and tackle
 Fixed pulley, loose
pulley and block and tackle as simple machines
 Fixed pulley, loose
pulley and block and tackle as simple machines on the adhesive
magnetic board
 Fixed pulley, loose
pulley and block and tackle as simple machines on the adhesive
magnetic board
Inclined plane
 Inclined plane:
force along the plane and force normal to the plane
 Determining the
coefficient of static friction using the inclined plane
Friction
 Static friction,
sliding friction and rolling friction
Translational motions of a mass point
Onedimensional motions on the track for students' experiments
 Recording pathtime
diagrams of linear motionrecording with the time recorder
 Recording pathtime
diagrams of linear motionrecording with a light barrier
 Recording pathtime
diagrams of linear motionrecording with a motion transducer
 Onedimensional
motions on Fletcher's trolley
 Pathtime diagramm
of straight motion  Recording the time with an electronic stopclock
 Pathtime diagramm
of straight motion  Recording the time with an electronic stopclock
 Pathtime diagramm
of straight motion  Recording and evaluating with CASSY
 Definition of the
newton as a unit of force  Recording and evaluating with CASSY
 Definition of the
newton as unit of force  Recording and evaluating with CASSY
 Pathtime diagramm
of straight motion  Recording and evaluating with VideoCom
Onedimensional motions on the linear air track
 Pathtime diagramm
of straight motion  Recording the time with forked light barrier
 Pathtime diagramm
of straight motion  Recording and evaluating with CASSY
 Uniformly
accelerated motion with reversal of direction  Recording and
evaluating CASSY
 Kinetic energy of
uniformly accelerated mass  Recording and evaluating with CASSY
 Confirming Newton's
first and second laws for linear motions  Recording and evaluating
with VideoCom
 Uniformly
accelerated motion with reversal of direction  Recording and
evaluating with VideoCom
 Kinetic energy of a
uniformly accelerated mass  Recording and evaluating with VideoCom
Conservation of linear momentum
 Energy and momenturm
in elastic collision  Measuring with two forked light barriers
 Energy and momenturm
in inelastic collision  Measuring with two forked light barriers
 Energy and momenturm
in inelastic collision  Measuring with two forked light barriers
 Rocket principle:
conservation of momentum and reaction
 Newton's third law
and laws of collision  Recording and evaluating with VideoCom
 Newton's third law
and laws of collision  Recording and evaluating with VideoCom
Free
fall
 Free fall: time
measurement with the contact plate and the counter S
 free fall: time
measurement with the forked light barrier and the digital counter
 Free fall: multiple
measurements with the gladder
 Free fall: Recording
and evaluating with VideoCom
Angled projection
 Pointbypoint
recording of the projection parabola as a function of the speed and
angle of projection
 Principle of
superposing: comparison of incllined projection and free fall
Twodimensional motions on the air table
 Uniform linear
motion and uniform circular motion
 Uniformly
accelerated motion
 Twodimensional
motion on an inclined plane
 Twodimensional
motion in responce to a central force
 Superposing
translational and rotational motion on a rigid body
 Twodimensional
motion of two elastically coupled bodies
 Experimentally
verifying the equality of aforce and its opposing force
 Elastic collision in
two dimensions
 Inelastic collision
in two dimensions
Rotational motions of a rigid body
Rotational motions
 Pathtime diagrams
of rotational motions  Time measurement with the counter
 Pathtime diagrams
of rotational motions  Recording and evaluating with CASSY
Conservation of angular momentum
 Conservation of
angular momentum in elastic rotational collision
 Conservation of
angular momentum in inelastic rotational collision
Centrifugal force
 Centrifugal force
of an orbiting body  Measuring with the centrifugal force
apparatus
 Centrifugal force
of an orbiting body  Measuring with the central force apparatus
 Centrifugal force
of an orbiting body  Measuring with the central force apparatus
and CASSY
Motions of a gyroscope
 Precession of a
gyoscope
 Nutation of a
gyoscope
Moment of inertia
 Definition of
moment of inertia
 Moment of
intertia and body shape
 Confirming
Steiner's theorem
Oscillations
Simple and compound pendulum
 Determining
the gravitation with a simple pendulum
 Determining
the gravitational acceleration with a reversible pendulum
Harmonic oscillations

Oscillations of a spring pendulum  Recording the path,
velocity and acceleration with CASSY

Determining the oscillation period of a spring pendulum as
a function of the oscillating mass
Torsion pendulum
 Free
rotational oscillations  Measuring with a handheld
stopclock
 Forced
rotational oscillations  Measuring with a handheld
stopclock
 Free
rotational oscillations  Recording with CASSY
 Forced
harmonic and chaotic rotational oscillations  Recording
with CASSY
Coupling if oscillations

Coupled pendulum  Measuring with a handheld
stopclock

Coupled pendulum  Recording and evaluating with
VideoCom

Coupling of longitudinal and rotational oscillations
with the helical spring after Wilberforce

Coupled pendulum  Recording and evaluating with CASSY
Wave mechanics
Transversal and longitudinal waves

Standing transversal waves on a thread

Standing longitudinal waves on a helical spring
Wave
machine

Wavelength, frequency and phase velocity of
traveling waves
Circularly polarized waves

Investigating circularly polarized waves in the
experiment setup after Melde

Determining the phase velocity of circularly
polarized thread waves in the experiment setup
after Melde
Propagation of water waves

Exciting circular and straight water waves

Huygens' principle in water waves

Propagation of water waves in two different
depths

Refraction of water waves

Doppler effect in water waves

Reflection of water waves at a straight
obstacle

Reflection of water waves at curved obstacles
Interference of water waves

Twobeam interference of water waves

Lloyd's experiment on water waves

Diffraction of water waves at slit and at an
obstacle

Diffraction of water waves at a multiple
slit
Acoustics
Sound waves

Mechanical oscillations and sound waves
using the recording tuning fork

Acoustic beats  Displaying on the
oscilloscope

Acoustic beats  Recording with CASSY
Oscillations of a string

Determining the oscillation frequency of
a string as a function of the string
length and tension
Wavelength and
velocity of sound

Kundt's tube: determining the
wavelength of sound with the
corkpowder method

Determining the wavelength of standing
sound waves

Determining the velocity of sound in
air as a function of the temperature

Determining the velocity of sound in
gases

Determining the velocity of sound in
solids
Reflection of ultrasonic waves

Reflection of planar ultrasonic
waves at a plane surface

Principle of an echo sounder
Interference of ultrasonic waves

Beating of ultrasonic waves

Interference of two ultrasonic
beams

Diffraction of ultrasonic waves at
a single slit

Diffraction of ultrasonic waves at
a double slit, a multiple slit and
a grating
Acoustic Doppler effect

Investigating the Doppler effect
with ultrasonic waves
Fourier analysis

Investigating fast Fourier
transforms: simulation of
Fourier analysis and Fourier
synthesis

Fourier analysis of the
periodic signals of a function
generator

Fourier analysis of an
electric oscillator circuit

Fourier analysis of sounds
Aerodynamics and hydrodynaics
Barometric measurements

Definition of pressure

Hydrostatic pressure as a
nondirectional quantity
Buoyancy

Confirming Archimedes'
principle

Measuring the buoyancy as
a function of the
immersion depth
Viscosity

Assembling a
fallingball
viscosimeter to
determine the viscosity
of viscous fluids

Fallingball
viscosimeter: measuring
the viscosity of sugar
solutions as a function
of the concentration

Fallingball
viscosimeter: measuring
the viscosity of
Newtonian liquids as a
function of the
temperature
Surface tension

Measuring the surface
tension using the
"breakaway" method

Measuring the surface
tension using the
"breakaway" method 
Recording and
evaluating with CASSY
Introductory experiments on aerodynamics

Static pressure in a
reduced
crosssection 
Measuring the
pressure with the
precision manometer

Determining the
volume flow with a
Venturi tube 
Measuring the
pressure with the
precision manometer

Determining the wind
speed with a
pressure head 
Measuring the
pressure with the
precision manometer

Static pressure in a
reduced
crosssection 
Measuring the
pressure with a
pressure sensor and
MobileCASSY

Determining the
volume flow with a
Venturi tube 
Measuring the
pressure with a
pressure sensor and
MobileCASSY

Determining the wind
speed with a
pressure head 
Measuring the
pressure with a
pressure sensor and
MobileCASSY
Measuring air resistance

Measuring the air
resistance as a
function of the
wind speed 
Measuring the
pressure with the
precision
manometer

Drag coefficient
cW: relationship
between air
resistance and
body shape 
Measuring the
pressure with the
precision
manometer

Pressure curve on
an airfoil profile
 Measuring the
pressure with the
precision
manometer

Measuring the air
resistance as a
function of the
wind speed 
Measuring the
pressure with a
pressure sensor
and MobileCASSY

Drag coefficient
cW: relationship
between air
resistance and
body shape 
Measuring the
pressure with a
pressure sensor
and MobileCASSY

Pressure curve on
an airfoil profile
 Measuring the
pressure with a
pressure sensor
and MobileCASSY
Measurements in a wind tunnel

Recording the
airfoil profile
polars in a wind
tunnel

Measuring
students' ownn
airfoils and
panels in the
wind tunnel

Verifying the
Bernoulli
equation 
Measuring with
the precision
manometer

Verifying the
Bernoulli
equation 
Measuring with a
pressure sensor
and MobileCASSY
back to
top
Heat
Thermal
expansions of
solids

Thermal
expansions of
solids 
Measuring
using STM
equipment

Thermal
expansion of
solids 
Measuring
using the
expansion
apparatus

Measuring the
linear
expansion of
solids as a
function of
temperature
Thermal expansions of liquids

Determining
the
volumetric
expansion
coefficient
of liquids
Anomaly of water

Investigating
the
density
maximum of
water
Thermal conduction
Thermal
couductivity

Determining
the
thermal
conductivity
of
building
materials
using
the
singleplate
method

Determining
the
thermal
conductivity
of
building
materials
with the
aid of a
reference
material
of known
thermal
conductivity

Damping
temperature
fluctuations
using
multiplelayered
walls
Solar
collector

Determining
the
efficiency
of a
solar
collector
as a
function
of the
throughput
volume
of
water

Determining
the
efficiency
of a
solar
collector
as a
function
of the
heat
insulation
Heat as a form of energy
Mixing
temperatures

Mixing
temperature
of
water
Heat
capacities

Determining
the
specific
heat
of
solids
Converting mechanical energy into heat
 Converting mechanical energy into heat energy  Recording and evaluating measured values manually
 Converting mechanical energy into heat energy  Recording and evaluating with CASSY
Converting electrical energy into heat
 Converting electrical energy into heat energy  Measuring with a voltmeter and an ammeter
 Converting electrical energy into heat energy  Measuring with the joule and wattmeter
 Converting electrical energy into heat energy  Measuring with CASSY
Phase transistions Latent heat and vaporization heat
 Determining the specific vaporization heat of water
 Determining the specific latent heat of ice
Measuring vapor pressure
 Recording the vaporpressure curve of water  Pressure up to 1 bar
 Recording the vaporpressure curve of water  Pressure up to 50 bar
Critical temperature
 Observing the phase transition between the liquid and the gas phase at the critical point
Kinetic theory of gases Brownian motion of molecules
 Brownian movement of smoke particles
Gas
laws
 Pressuredependency of the volume of a gas at a constant temperature (BoyleMariotte's law)
 Temperaturedependency of the volume of a gas at a constant pressure (GayLussac's law)
 Temperaturedependency of the pressure of a gas at a constant volume (Amontons' law)
Specific heat of gases
 Determining the adiabatic exponent Cp/CV of air after Ruchard
 Determining the adiabatic exponent Cp/CV of various gases using the gas elastic resonance apparatus
Thermodynamic cycle Hotair engine: qualitative experiments
 Operating a hotair engine as a thermal engine
 Operating the hotair engine as a heat pump and a refrigerator
Hotair engine: quantitative experiments
 Frictional losses in the hotair engine (calorific determination)
 Determining the efficiency of the hotair engine as a heat engine
 Determining the efficiency of the hotair engine as a refrigerator
 pV diagram of the hotair engine as a heat engine  Recording and evaluating with CASSY
Heat
pump
 Determining the efficiency of the heat pump as a function of the temperature differential
 Investigating the function of the expansion valve of the heat pump
 Analyzing the cyclical process of the heat pump with the Mollier diagram
Electricity Basic experiments on electrostatics
 Basic electrostatics experiments with the field electrometer
 Basic electrostatics experiments with the electrometer amplifier
Coulomb's law
 Confirming Coulomb's law  Measuring with the torsion balance, Schurholz design
 Confirming Coulomb's law  Measuring with the force sensor
 Confirming Coulomb's law  Recording and evaluating with CASSY
Field
lines and equipotential lines
 Displaying lines of electric flux
 Displaying the equipotential lines of electric fields
Effects of force in an electric field
 Measuring the force of an electric charge in a homogeneous electric field
 Kirchhoff's voltage balance: Measuring the force between two charged plates of a plate capacitor
 Measuring the force between a charged sphere and a metal plate
Charge distributions on electrical conductors
 Investigating the charge distribution on the surface of electrical conductors
 Electrostatic induction with the hemispheres after Cavendish
Definition of capacitance
 Determining the capacitance of a sphere in free space
 Determining the capacitance of a sphere in front of a metal plate
Plate
capacitor
 Determining the capacitance of a plate capacitor  Measuring the charge with the electrometer amplifier
 Parallel and series connection of capacitors  Measuring the charge with the electrometer amplifier
 Determining the capacitance of a plate capacitor  Measuring the charge with the Imeasuring amplifier D
Principles of electricity Charge transfer with drops of water
 Generating an electric current through the motion of charged drops of water
ohm's
law
 Verifying Ohm's law and measuring specific resistances
Kirchhoff's laws
 Measuring current and voltage at resistors connected in parallel and in series
 Voltage division with a potentiometer
 Principle of a Wheatstone bridge
 Determining resistances using a Wheatstone bridge
Circuits with electrical measuring instruments
 The ammeter as an ohmic resistor in a circuit
 The voltmeter as an ohmic resistor in a circuit
Conducting electricity by means of electrolysis
 Determining the Faraday constant
Experiments on electrochemistry
 Generating electric current with a Daniell cell
 Measuring the voltage at simple galavanic elements
 Determining the standard potentials of corresponding redox pairs
Magnetostatics Basic experiments on magnetostatics
 Displaying lines of magnetic flux
 Basic of electromagnetism
Magnetic dipole moment
 Measuring the magnetic dipole moments of long magnetic needles
Effects of force in a magnetic field
 Measuring the force acting on currentcarrying conductors in the field of a horseshoe magnet
 Measuring the force acting on currentcarrying conductors in a homogeneous magnetic field  Recording with CASSY
 Measuring the force acting on currentcarrying conductors in the magnetic field of an air coil Recording with CASSY
 Basic measurements for the electrodynamic definition of the ampere
BiotSavart's law
 Measuring the magnetic field for a straight conductor and on circular conductor loops
 Measuring the magnetic field of an air coil
 Measuring the magnetic field of a pair of coils in the Helmgoltz configuration
Electromagnetic induction Voltage impulse
 Generating a voltage surge in a conductor loop with a moving permanent magnet
Induction in a moving conductor loop
 Measuring the induction voltage in a conductor loop moved through a magnetic field
Induction by means of a variable magnetic field
 Measuring the induction voltage in a conductor loop for a variable magnetic field  with triangular waveform power supply
 Measuring the induction voltage in a conductor loop for a variable magnetic field  with PowerCASSY as variable source of current
Eddy
currents
 Waltenhofen's pendulum: demonstration of an eddycurrent brake
 Demonstrating the operating principle of an AC power meter
Transformer
 Voltage and current transformation with a transformer
 Voltage transformation with a transformer under load
 Recording the voltage and current of a transformer under load as a function of time
 Power transmission of a transformer
 Experiments with high currents
 Highvoltage experiments with a twopronged lighting rod
Measuring the earth's magnetic field
 Measuring the earth's magnetic field with a rotating induction coil (earth inductor)
back to
top
Electrical machines
Basic experiments on electrical machines
 Investigating the interactions of forces of rotors and stators
 Simple induction experiments with electromagnetic rotors and stators
Electric generators
 Generating AC voltage using a revolvingfield generator and a stationaryfield generator
 Generating DC voltage using a stationaryfield generator
 Generating AC voltage using a generator with electromagnetic rotating pole (powerplant generator)
 Generating voltage with an ACDC generator (generator with electromagnetic stationary pole)
 Generating voltage using selfexciting generators
Electric motors
 Experiments on DC motor with twopole rotor
 Experiments on DC motor with threepole rotor
 Experiments with a universal motor in series and shunt connection
 Assembling an AC synchronous motor
Threephase machines
 Experiments with a threephase revolvingarmature generator
 Experiments with a threephase revolvingfield generator
 Comparing star and delta connections on a threephase generator
 Assembling synchronous and asynchronous threephase motors
DC and AC circuits Circuit with capacitor
 Charging and discharging a capacitor when switching DC on and off
 Determining the capacitive reactance of a capacitor in an AC circuit
Circuit with coil
 Measuring the current in a coil when switching DC on and off
 Determining the inductive reactance of a coil in an AC circuit
Impedances
 Determining the
impedance in circuits with capacitors and ohmic resistors
 Determining the
impedance in circuits with coils and ohmic resistors
 Determining the
impedance in circuits with capacitors and coils
Measuringbridge circuits
 Determining
capacitive reactance with a Wien measuring bridge
 Determining
inductive reactance with a Maxwell measuring bridge
Measuring AC voltages and AC currents
 Frequency
response and form factor of a multimeter
Electrical work and power
 Determining
the heating power if an ohmic load in an AC circuit as a
function of the applied voltage
 Determining
the electric work of an immersion heater using an AC power
meter
 Quantitative
comparison of DC power and AV power in an incandescent lamp
 Determining
the crest factors of various AC signal forms
 Determining
the active and reactive power in AC circuits
Electromechanical devices

Demonstrating the function of a bell

Demonstrating the function of a relay
Electromagnetic oscillations and waves
Electromagnetic oscillator circuit
 Free
electromagnetic oscillations
 Dedamping
of electromagnetic oscillations through inductive
threepoint coupling after Hartley
Decimeterrange waves

Radiation characteristic and polarization of decimeter
waves

Amplitude modulation of decimeter waves

Estimating the dielectric constant of water in the
decimeterwave range
Propagation of decimeterrange waves along lines

Determining the current and voltage maxima on a Lecher
line

Investigating the current and voltage on a
Lecher line with a loop dipole
Microwaves

Directional characteristic and polarization of
microwaves in front of a horn antenna

Absorption of microwaves

Interference of microwaves

Diffraction of microwaves

Refraction of microwaves

Total reflection of microwaves
Propagation of microwaves along lines

Guiding of microwaves along a Lecher line

Qualitative demonstration of guising of microwaves
along a metal waveguide

Determining the standingwave ratio of a
rectangular waveguide for a variablel reflectionn
factor
Directional characteristic of dipole radiation

Directional characteristic of a helix antenna 
Recording measured values manually

Directional characteristic of a Yagi antenna 
Recording measured values manually

Directional characteristic of a helix antenna 
Recording with a computer

Directional characteristic of a Yagi antenna 
Recording with a computer
Moving charge carries in a vacuum
Tube diode

Recording the characteristic of a tube diode

Halfwave rectification using a tube diode
Tube triode

Recording the characteristic field of a tube
triode

Amplifying voltages with a tube triode
Maltesecross tube

Demonstrating the linear propagation
of electrons in a fieldfree space

Deflection of electrons in an axial
magnetic field
Perrin tube

Hotcathode emission in a vacuum:
determining the polarity and estimating
the specific charge of the emitted
charge carriers

Generating Lissajou figures through
electron deflection in crossed
alternating magnetic fields
Thomson tube

Investigating the deflection of
electrons in electrical and magnetic
fields

Assembling a velocity filter (Wien
filter) to determine the specific
Electrical conduction in gases
Spontaneous and nonspontaneous
discharge

Nonspontaneous gas discharge:
comparison between the charge
transport in a gas triode and a
highvacuum triode

Ignition and extinction of
spontaneous gas discharge
Gas discharge at reduced pressure

Investigating spontaneous gas
discharge in air as a function of
pressure
Cathode rays and canal reys

Magnetic deflection of cathode
and canal rays
back to top
Electronic
Current and voltage sources

Determining the internal
resistance of a battery

Operating a DC power supply as
constantcurrent and
constantvoltage source

Recording the currentvoltage
characteristics of a
solar battery as a function of
the irradiance
Special resisistors

Recording the
currentvoltage
characteristic of an
incandescent lamp

Recording the
currentvoltage
characteristic of a
varistor

Measuring the temperaturedependancy
of PTC and NTC resistors

Measuring the lightdependancy
of photoresistors
Diodes

Recording the
currentvoltage
characteristic of diodes

Recording the current
voltage characteristics
of Zener diodes (Zdiodes)

Recording the
currentvoltage
characteristics of
lightemitting diodes
(LED)
Diode circuits

Rectifying AC voltage
using diodes

Voltagelimiting with a
Zdiodes

Testing polarity with
lightemitting diodes
Transistors

Investigating the
diode properties of
transistor junctions

Recording the
characteristics of a
transistors

Recording the
characteristics of a
fieldeffect
transistor
Transistor circuits

The transistor as an
amplifier

The transistor as a
switch

The transistor as a
sinewave generator
(oscillator)

The transistor as a
function generator

The fieldeffect
transistor as an
amplifier

The fieldeffect
transistor as a
switch
Optoelectronics

Recording the
characteristics of
a phototransistor
connected as
photodiode

Assembling a
purely optical
transmission line
Operational
amplifier
Internal design of
an operational
amplifier

Discrete
assembly of an
operational
amplifier as a
transistor
circuit
Operational
amplifier
circuits

Unconnected
operational
amplifier
(comparator)

Inverting
operational
amplifier

Noninverting
operational
amplifier

Adder and
subtracter

Differentiator
and integrator
Openand
closedloop
control
Openloop
control

Assembling a
trafficlight
control
system

Assembling a
model for
control of
stairway
illumination
Closedloop
control

Assembling
a model
for servo
control

Brightness
control
with CASSY

Voltage
control
with CASSY
Digital
technology
Basic
logical
operations

AND, OR,
XOR,
NAND and
NOR
operations
with two
variables

De
Morgan's
laws

Operations
with
three
variables
Combinatorial
and
sequential
circuits

AND,
NAND,
OR and
NOR
operations
with
four
variables

Coders,
decoders
and
code
converters

Multiplexers
and
demultiplexers

Adders

Flip
flops

Counters

Shift
registers
Serial
and
parallel
arithmetic
units

Data
transfer
between
registers

Serial
and
parallel
logic
elements

Serial
and
parallel
adders
and
subtracters

Functions
of
the
buffer,
latch
and
accumulator
Digital
control
systems

Structure
of
functional
circuits

DA
and
AD
Converter
Structure
of
a
central
processing
unit
(CPU)
 Function of the ALU, CPU timer, RAM and I/O components
 Address bus and data bus
 Indirect, direct and immediate addressing
 Conditional and unconditional jump instructions
 Program memory
 Examples of programs
Microprocessor
 Signal transmission via the address, data and control buses
 Program counter and address structure, zero page
 Datatransfer instructions
 Rotation and shift instructions
 Arithmetic and logic operations
 Program control using jumps, branches, subprogram calls and interrupt processing
back to top 
Geometrical optics
Reflection, refraction
 Reflection of light
at straight and curved mirrors
 Refraction of light
at straight surfaces and investigation of ray paths in prisms and
lenses
Laws
of imaging
 Determining
the focal lengths at collecting and dispersing lenses using
collimated light
 Determining the
focal lengths at collecting lenses at collecting lenses through
autocollimmation
 Determining thee
focal lengths at collecting lenses using Basel's method
 Verifying the
imaging laws with a collecting lens
Image
distortion
 Spherical aberration
and coma in lens imaging
 Astigmatism and
curvature of image field in lens imaging
 Lens imaging
distortions (barrel and cushion)
 Chromatic aberration
in lens imaging
Optical instruments
 Magnifier and
microscope
 Kepler's telescope
and Galileo's telescope
Dispersion and chromatics
Refractive index and dispersion
 Determining the
refractive index and dispersion of flint glass and crown glass
 Determining the
refractive index and dispersion of liquids
Decomposition of white light
 Newton's experiments
on dispersion and recombination of white light
 Adding complementary
colors to create white light
Color
mixing
 Additive and
subtractive color mixing
Absorption spectra
 Absorption spectra
of tinted glass samples
 Absorption spectra
of colored liquids
Wave optics
Diffraction
 Diffraction at a
slit, at a post and at a circular iris diaphragm
 Diffraction at a
double slit and multiple slits
 Diffraction at
oneand twodimensional gratings
 Diffraction at a
signal slit  Recording and evaluating with CASSY
 Diffraction at a
double slit and multiple slits  Recording and evaluating with CASSY
 Diffraction at a
single slit  Recording and evaluating with VideoCom
 Diffraction at a
double slit and multiple slits  Recording and evaluating with
VideoCom
 Diffraction at a
halfplane  Recording and evaluating with VideoCom
Twobeam interference
 Interference at a
Fresnel's mirror with an HeNe laser
 Lloyd's mirror
experiment with an HeeNe laser
 Interference at
Fresnel's biprism with an Hene laser
Newton's Rings
 Newton's Rings in
transmitted monochromatic light
 Newton's rings in
transmitted and reflected white light
Michelson interferometer
 Setting up a
Michelson interferometer on the laser optics base plate
 Determining the
wavelength of the light of an HeN laser using a Michelson
MachZehnder
interferometer
 Setting up a MachZehnder
interferometer on the laser optics base plate
 Measuring the
refractive index of air with a MachZehnder interferometer
Whitelight Reflection Holography
 Creating whitelight
reflection holograms on the laser optics base plate
Transmission Holography
 Creating
transmission holograms on the laser optics base plate
Polarization
Basic
experients
 Polarization of
light through reflection at a glass plate
 Fresnel's laws of
reflection
 Polarization of
light through scattering in an emulsion
 Malus' law
Birefringence
 Birefringence and
polarization with calcareous spar
 Quarterwavelength
and halfwavelength plate
 Photoelasticity:
Investigating the distribution of strains in mechanically stressed
bodies
Optical activity, polarimetry
 Rotation of the
plane of polarization with quartz
 Rotation of the
plane of polarization with sugar solutions
 Building a
halfshadow polarimeter with discrete elements
 Determining the
concentration of sugar solutions with a standard commerical
Kerr
effect
 Investigating the
Kerr effect in nitrobenzol
Pockels effect
 Demonstrating the
Pockels effect in a conoscopic beam path
 Pockels effect:
transmitting information using modulated light
Faraday effect
 Faraday effect:
determining Verdet's constant for flint glass as a function of the
wavelength
Light intensity
Quantities and measuring methods of lighting engineering
 Determining the
radiant flux density and the luminous intensity of a halogen lamp
 Determining the
luminous intensity as a function of the distance from the light
source  Recording and evaluating with CASSY
 Verifying Lambert's
law of radiation
Laws
of radiation
 StefanBoltzmann
law: measuring the radiant intensity of a "black body" as a function
 StefanBotzmann law:
measuring the radiant intensity of a "black body" as a function of
temperature  Recording and evaluating with CASSY
 Confirming the laws
of radiation with Leslie's tube
Velocity of light
Measurement according to Foucault/Michelson
 Determining the
velocity of light by means of the rotatingmirror method according
to Foucault and Michelson  Measuring the image shift as a function
of the rotational speed of the mirror
 Determining the
velocity of light by means of the rotatingmirror method according
to Foucault and Michelson  Measuring the image shift for the
maximum rotational speed of the mirror
Measuring with short light pulses
 Determining the
velocity of light in air from the path and transit time of a short
light
 Determining the
propagation velocity of voltage pulses in coaxial cables
Measuring with an electronically modulated signal
 Determining the
velocity of light with an electronically modulated signal at small
distances
 Determining the
velocity of light in various materials
Spectrometer
Prism
spectrometer
 Measuring the line
spectra of inert gases and metal vapors using a prism spectrometer
Grating spectrometer
 Measuring the line
spectra of inert gases and metal vapors using a grating spectrometer
 Assembling a grating
spectrometer for measuring transmission curves
back to
top
Atomic and nuclear physis
Oilspot experiment
 Estimating the size
of oil molecules
Millikan experiment
 Determining the
electric unit charge after Millikan and verifying the charge
quantification  Measuring the suspension voltage and the falling
speed
 Determining the
electric unit charge after Millikan and verifying the charge
quantification  Measuring the rising and falling speed
 Determining the
electric unit charge after Millikan and verifying the charge
quantification  Measuring the suspension voltage and the falling
speed with CASSY
 Determining the
electric unit charge after Millikan and verifying the charge
quantification  Measuring the rising and falling speed CASSY
Specific electron charge
 Determining the
specific charge of the electron
Planck's constant
 Determining Planck's
constant  Measuring in a compact assembly
 Determining Planck's
constant  Separation of wavelengths with a straightview prism on
the optical bench
 Determining Planck's
constant  Selection of wavelengths using interference filters onn
the optical bench
Dual
nature of wave and particle
 Deflection of
electrons at a polycrystalline lattice (DebyeScherrer diffraction)
 Optical analogy to
electron diffraction at a polycrystalline lattice
Paul
trap
 Observing individual
lycopod spores in a Paul trap
Atomic shell
Balmer series of hydrogen
 Determining the
wavelengths Ha, H? and hg from the Balmer series of hydrogen
 Observing the Balmer
series of hydrogen using a prism spectrometer
Emission and absorption spectra
 Displaying the
spectral lines of inert gases and metal vapors
 Qualitative
investitation of the absorption spectrum of sodium
Inelastic collisions of electrons
 Discontinuous energy
emission of electrons in a gasfilled triode
FranckHertz experiment
 FranckHertz
experiment with mercury  Recording with oscilloscope, the XYrecorder
and point by point
 FranckHertz
experiment with mercury  Recording and evaluation with CASSY
 FranckHertz
experiment with neon  Recording with the oscilloscope, the XYrecorder
and point by point
 FranckHertz
experiment with neon  Recording and evaluation with CASSY
Electron spin resonance
 Electron spin
resonance at DPPH  determining the magnetic field fas a function
the resonance frequency
 Resonance absorption
of a passive RF oscillator circuit
Normal Zeeman effect
 Observing the
normal Zeeman effect in transverse and longitudinal configuration
 spectroscopy using a LummerGehrcke plate
 Measuring the
Zeeman split of the red casmium line as a function of the magnetic
field  spectroscopy using a LummerGehrcke plate
 Observing the
normal Zeeman effect in transverse and longitudinal configuration
 spectroscopy using a FebryPerot etalon
 Measuring the
Zeeman split of the red cadmium line as a function of thee
mafnetic field  spectroscopy using a FabryPerot etalon
¡@
Optical pumping (anomalous Zeeman effect)
 Optical pumping:
observing the pump signal
 Optical pumping:
measuring and observing the Zeeman transitions in the ground
states of Rb87 with s+ and spumped light
 Optical pumping:
measuring and observing the Zeeman transitions in the states of
Rb85 with s+and spumped light
 Optical pumping:
measuring and observing the Zeeman transitions in the ground
states of Rb87 as a function of the magnetic flux density B
 Optical pumping:
measuring and observing the Zeeman transitions in thee ground
states of Rb85 as a function of the magnetic flux density B
 Optical pumping:
measuring and observing twoquantum transitions
Xrays
Detection of xrays
 Fluorescence
of a luminescent screen due to xrays
 Xray
photography: Exposure of film sock due to xrays
 Detecting
xrays using an ionization chambr
 Determining
the ion dose rate of the xray tube with molydenum anode
Attenuation of xrays

Investigating the attenuation of xrays as a function of the
absorber material and absorber thickness

Investigating the wavelength dependency of the attenuation
coefficient

Investigating the relationship between the attenuation
coefficient and the atomic number Z
Physics of the atomic shell
 Bragg
reflection: diffraction of xrays at a monocrystal

Investigating the energy spectrum of an xray tube as a
function of the high voltage and the emission current
 DuaneHunt
relation and determination of Planck's constant
 Fine
structure of the characteristic xray radiation of a
molybdenum anode
 Edge
absorption: filtering xrays
 Moseley's
law and determination of the Rydberg constant
 Compton
effect: verifying the energy loss of the scattered xray
quantum
 Fine
structure of the characteristic xray radiation of a
copper anode
Radioactivity
Detecting radioactivity

Ionization of air through radioactivity

Recording the currentvoltage characteristic of an
ionization chamber

Demonstrating radioactive radiation with a Geiger
counter

Recording the characteristic of a GeigerMuller
(endwindow) counter tube
Poisson distribution

Statistical variations in determining counting rates
Radioactive decay and halflife

Determining the halflife of Cs137  Pointbypoint
recording of a decay curve

Determining the halflife of Cs137  Recording and
evaluating the decay curve with CASSY
Attenuation of alpha, beta and gamma radiation

Measuring the range of a radiation in air

Attenuation of b radiation when passing through
matter

Confirming the inversesquare law of distance for
b radiation

Absorption of g
radiation through matter
Nuclear physics
Demonstrating paths of particles

Demonstrating the tracks of particles in a
Wilson cloud chamber
Rutherford scattering

Rutherford scattering: measuring the
scattering rate as a function of the
scattering angle and the atomic number
Nuclear magnetic resonance

Nuclear magnetic resonance in polystyrene,
glycerin and Teflon
alphaspectroscopy

alpha spectroscopy of radioactive samples

Determining the energy loss of alpha
radiation in air

Determining the energy loss of alpha
radiation in aluminum and in gold

Determining age using a Ra226 sample
gammaspectroscopy

Determining gamma radiation with a
scintillation counter

Recording and calibrating a gamma
spectrum

Absorption of gamma radiation

Identifying and determining the activity
of radioactive samples

Recording a beta spectrum with a
scintillation counter

Coincidence and gg angular correlation
in positron decay
Compton effect

Quantitative observation of the
Compton effect
back to
top
Solidstate physics
Crystal structure

Structure of a bodycentered cubic
and facecentered cubic lattice
Xray
structural analysis

Bragg reflection: determining the
lattice constants of monocrystals

laue diagrams: investigating the
lattice structure of monocrystals

DebyeScherrer photograghy:
determining the lattice plane
spacings of Polycrystalline

DebyeScherrer Scan: determining
the lattice plane spacings of
polycrystalline powder
Elastic and plastic deformation

Investigating the elastic and
plastic extension of metal wires
Conduction phenomena
Hall effect

Investigating the Hall effect
in silver

Investigating the anomalous
Hall effect in tungsten

Determining the density and
mobility of charge carriers in
nGermanium

Determining the density and
mobility of charge carriers in
pGermanium

Determining the band gap of
germanium
Electrical conductivity in solids

Measuring the
temperaturedependency of a
noblemetal resistor

Measuring the
temperaturedependency of a
semiconductor resistor
Photoconductivity

Recording the
currentvoltage
characteristics of a Cds
photoresistor
Luminescence

Exciting luminescence
through irraditaion with
ultraviolet light and
electrons
Thermoelectricity

Seebeck effect:
Determining the
thermoelectric voltage
as a function of the
temperature
differential
Superconductivity

Determining the
transition
temperature of a
hightemperature
superconductor

MeissnerOchsenfeeld
effect for a
hightemperature
superconductor
Magnetism
Dia, para and
ferromagnetism

Dia, para and
ferromagnetic
materials in an
inhomogeneous
magnetic field
Ferromagnetic hysteresis

Recording the
initial
magnetization
curve and the
hysteresis curve
of a
ferromagnetic
Scanning probe microscopy
Scanning
tunneling
microscope

Investigating
a graphite
surface using
a scanning
tunneling
microscope

Investigating
a gold surface
using a
scanning
tunneling
microscope

Investigating
a MoS2 probe
using a
scanning
tunneling
microscope
back to
top
¡@ ¡@ 